失明和视力残疾人士的职业取向

【本文转载自hippo的qq空间】
失明和视力残疾人士的职业取向
在afb.org上看到这篇关于盲人职业取向的文章。容我慢慢地译。( 7月7日完成。)

译文:

失明和视力残疾人士的职业取向
无限可能

失明和视力残疾人士可以完成几乎你能想象得到的任何工作:律师,艺术家,会计师,秘书,顾客服务代表,食品加工工人,工厂工人,金融分析师,教师,医疗报告打字员,托儿所工人,顾问,计算机程序员,厨师,销售人员,文书,以及更多。在今天或者未来,失明和视力残疾人士所正从事的各种工作真是不胜枚举。各样的可能性都是巨大的。

自从通过了1973年的康复法案,因为一系列的事件,失明和视力残疾人士有了比以往历史上任何时候更为广泛的职业选择。法律和社会的变迁减少了对视力残疾工作者的歧视,同时人们对待残障人士的态度在逐步改善。雇主,特别是中型至大型的企业,常规性地执行平等就业机会的惯例,并且有性别与种族多元化和容纳残疾人的程序。已有的辅助工具使视障人士得以更加轻松地完成许多之前不能够完成的工作。特有的培训,适当的工具,推销自己的能力,和雇主愿意帮助的态度就构成了成功的模式。

每个工作者都是不同的个体
没有两个视障人士有相同的视力或者会使用同样的办法以执行工作有关的任务。有些人会比其他人更多地使用他们的视力; 有些人可能在使用非可视技术时才能更有效地工作。许多人在他们成为视障者前已经学会怎样完成他们工作的基本职能,这样的人需要学习适应视障的技术,以保留或恢复就业。 已经视障多年的新员工在学习有效地履行其职责时将需要使用适应性技术。大多数人失明或视力残疾人士将受益于为方便视障人士所做的工作环境改造,这样他们能够在工作中更具有竞争力。

工作场所改造
改造是对工作环境或个人的工作状况进行调整,使残疾人可以象他们的非残疾人同事一样履行工作职责,虽然他们并不一定以相同的方式来履行职责。 已证明有效和可负担得起的为视力残疾人士进行的工作场所改造包括以下方面:

减少眩光和调整照明。
语音或电子邮件而不是手写笔记。
台式或笔记本电脑配备有读屏软件(合成语音) ,屏幕放大,和/或光学字符识别( OCR )软件。
扫描仪,大型的显示器,还可以增加点字显示设备作为外设。
大字体书,可触设备,或有读音的卡钳,量表,卷尺,温度计,血压计,计算器,货币标识符,和收银机
帮助失明或视力残疾人士行动的工具包括长杖,导盲犬,电子旅行设备,可以阅读标志的特别望远镜,使用公共交通,和合伙用车。

欲了解更多信息
如果你想进一步了解视障人士的工作以及雇主可采纳的措施,请参考CareerConnect database of mentors,其中含有1000多位愿意担任求职视障人士指导老师的已就业视障人士。这些指导老师还可以就履行工作职责和职场相处等实际问题提供咨询意见。

若想得到翔实的,由在各类职业上已取得成功的失明和视力残疾人士所撰写的第一手资料,请参考由CareerConnect的指导老师所撰写的成功案例。

自雇
失明或视力残疾人士可以想明眼人一样作为企业家为自己工作。视障人士可以通过两个主要的渠道建立自己的企业:一个是由州立职业康复机构管理的商业企业计划,另一个是自谋职业。 这二者都需要企业家了解常见的商业惯例并对他们的产品或服务线有深入的见解。

企业计划
为了取得企业的成功,大多数企业家长时间工作,他们善于解决问题,并且很能承受压力。失明或视力残疾人士如果想要运作自己的企业可以向他们所在州的职业康复机构申请进入企业计划。这个计划是在Randolf -Sheppard 法案下创建的。这一计划为运营商提供以下商业机会:在政府大楼的大厅里,在州营高速公路沿线地区,偶尔在军事基地拥有销售摊位。商贩通常会运行以下类型中的一种或多种混合型的企业:

干摊位:所有已包装好的食品
湿摊位:一些准备好的食物,如三明治
食堂:厨房,冷热食品
自动售货机:往往是两个或两个以上摆放在一起,需要经常补货
在大多数情况下,商贩须向州企业计划项目支付一定比例的摊位收入。这笔钱被集中起来,再加上在Randolf-Sheppard 法案下留作运行该项目的资金,是用来给商贩提供福利(例如,健康保险,退休计划,摊位翻修,购买股票等) 。

其他自谋职业的选择
州企业计划之外的独立企业家在创业时需要投入更多的个人资源。他们的任务包括制定经营理念,最初的研究,写一份商业计划,并确保创业贷款。州立职业康复机构,根据个体就业计划,可以为这些企业家设计自谋职业计划并且赞助部分的启动费用(例如,原始股票,第一个月的租金,短时间支付保险费)。

视障企业家可以在下列组织找到支持: 全国盲人招商协会,它隶属于全国盲人联合会;以及美国Randolf -Sheppard商人协会,它隶属于美国盲人委员会。

密西西比州州立大学的盲与低视力康复研究与培训中心可提供其他资源清单。

小企业和自营就业服务( SBSES )提供信息并协助那些想要创立小型企业的残疾人士,其中包括关于创业和企业管理,以及与残疾有关的特殊问题的信息。该组织的工作人员来源于残疾就业政策调整网络办公室,是残疾人信息服务的宝贵资源。

残疾人企业家协会是“致力于协助那些奋力进取的残疾人在商业领域最大限度地发挥其潜力,与职业康复机构,政府和企业一起鼓励残疾人参与就业并提高他们的工作绩效。”


原文:
Careers for Blind and Visually Impaired Individuals
No Limits
People who are blind or visually impaired can perform almost any job you can imagine: lawyer, artist, accountant, secretary, customer service representative, food service worker, factory worker, financialanalyst, teacher, medical transcriptionist, day care worker, counselor,computer programmer, cook, salesperson, clerk, and more. We cannot count the number of different jobs people who are blind or visuallyimpaired are engaged in today or will be in the future. The possibilities are tremendous.
People who are blind or visually impaired have a wider array ofcareer possibilities than ever before in history because of acombination of events since the passage of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Legislative and societal changes have reduced discrimination towardvisually impaired workers as attitudes toward people with disabilitiesgenerally have improved. Employers, especially in midsized and largebusinesses, routinely follow equal employment opportunity practices andhave diversity and disability-accommodation processes in place.Available assistive technology makes it easier for people who arevisually impaired to perform many jobs that they never could havebefore. Proper training, appropriate tools, the ability to selloneself, and a willing attitude on the part of employers constitute awinning formula.
Every Worker is an Individual
No two visually impaired people have the exact same level offunctional vision or the same approach to executing work-related tasks.Some use their vision more than others; some may work more efficientlywhen they can use nonvisual techniques. Many learned to perform theessential functions of their jobs before they became visually impairedand will need to learn adaptive techniques to retain or return toemployment. New employees who have been visually impaired for manyyears will need to use adaptive techniques as they learn to performtheir duties effectively. The majority of people who are blind orvisually impaired will benefit from accommodations or modifications totheir work environment in order to perform competitively at work.
Accommodations in the Workplace
Accommodations are adjustments to the work environment or anindividual's work situation that enable a person with disabilities toperform work duties as well as (but not always in the same way) as hisor her co-workers without disabilities. Accommodations that have proveneffective and affordable for workers with visual impairments includethe following:
Glare reduction and adjusted lighting.Voice or e-mail messages instead of handwritten notes.Desk or laptop computers adapted with screen-reading (synthesizedspeech), screen magnification, and/or optical character recognition(OCR) software. Scanners, larger-than-average monitors, and/or braille display devices can be added as peripherals.Large print, tactile, or talking calipers, scales, tape measures,thermometers, blood pressure cuffs, calculators, money identifiers, andcash registersAids to mobility for people who are blind or visually impairedinclude long canes, dog guides, electronic travel aids, specialtelescopes to read signs, use of public transit, and carpooling.
For More Information
For further discussion of the jobs that visually impaired people do and tips for employers, explore the CareerConnect database of mentors,which includes more than 1,000 employed visually impaired persons whohave agreed to act as mentors to visually impaired people seekingcareer information. The mentors can also offer advice on the practicalaspects of performing their job duties and getting along well in theworkplace.
For informative, first-hand accounts written by blind and visuallyimpaired people who have achieved success in a variety of interestingjobs, check out the Success Stories written by CareerConnect mentors.

Self-Employment
People who are blind or visually impaired work for themselves asentrepreneurs just the way sighted people do. Two major avenues existfor visually impaired persons to establish their own businesses: theBusiness Enterprise Program, administered by state vocationalrehabilitation agencies, and self-employment. Both require theentrepreneur to be knowledgeable about common business practices and toknow about their product or service lines in depth.
Business Enterprise Program
In order to succeed in business, most entrepreneurs work long hours,excel at problem-solving, and have a high tolerance for stress. Peoplewho are blind or visually impaired who would like to run their ownbusiness can apply to their State vocational rehabilitation agency forentrance into the Business Enterprise Program (BEP), created under theRandolf-Sheppard Act. BEP provides business opportunities for operatorsto run vending stands in the lobbies of government buildings, in restareas along State highways, and occasionally on military bases. Vendorstypically run one or a combination of the following types of businesses:
Dry stands: all packaged foodsWet stands: some prepared foods such as sandwichesCafeterias: kitchen, hot and cold foodsAutomated vending machines: often in banks of two or more, requiring routine restockingIn most cases vendors pay a percentage of the income from their standsto the BEP. This money is pooled and, along with funds set aside forthe BEP under the Randolf-Sheppard Act, is used for the benefit of thevendors (e.g., health insurance, retirement plans, standrefurbishments, purchase of stock, etc.).
Other Self-Employment Options
Independent entrepreneurs outside the BEP need to invest much moreof their own resources into starting a business. Their responsibilitiesinclude formulating a business concept, initial research, writing abusiness plan, and securing start-up loans. State vocationalrehabilitation agencies, under the Individualized Plan for Employment(IPE) can set up self-employment plans for these entrepreneurs andpartially sponsor start-up expenses (e.g., initial stock, first month'srent, time-limited payment of insurance premiums).
Visually impaired entrepreneurs can find support from the  National Association of Blind Merchants, an affiliate of the National Federation of the Blind; and the  Randolf-Sheppard Vendors of America,an affiliate of the American Council of the Blind.
Other resource lists are provided by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Blindness and Low Vision maintained by Mississippi State University.
The Small Business and Self-Employment Service (SBSES)provides information and assistance to people with disabilities whowish to start a small business, including information on starting andmanaging a business, and issues specifically related to disabilities.The SBSES is staffed by the Office of Disability Employment Policy's Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a valuable resource in disability information services.  
The Disabled Businesspersons Associationis "dedicated to assisting enterprising individuals with disabilitiesmaximize their potential in the business world, and work[ing] withvocational rehabilitation, government and business to encourage theparticipation and enhance the performance of the disabled in theworkforce."  

关键词:残疾人失明

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